Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
機場捷運隧道通風系統簡介 Introduction to the TIAA MRT Tunnel Ventilation System
隧道風機。

隧道通風系統設置目的係為提供捷運列車在隧道中運轉時所需之工作環境,包括新鮮空氣、降低隧道溫度、排除隧道內廢氣,以供車內乘客有舒適的乘坐環境,以及當隧道發生緊急火警時能有效控制濃煙的擴散,以確保人員逃生安全,不受煙層的干擾及危害。
一、隧道通風系統運作模式分為:
1. 正常模式:列車的行駛及停止皆依營運班表作業,在正常運轉情況下所操作之隧道通風系統模式為正常模式,藉由列車於隧道內行駛之活塞效應所造成之氣流,透過通風井來達成隧道內熱空氣與外界換氣的目的,無需啟動風機。
2. 塞車模式:列車依號誌訊號暫停於隧道中,停留時間從20秒至20分鐘或更久,直到繼續行駛;在此塞車運轉情況下,所需之隧道通風系統模式為塞車模式,當列車因故暫停於隧道內,活塞效應便消失,列車各項運轉設備的散熱會使隧道內溫度升高,此時必須藉由機械強制通風,產生順行方向氣流,帶走熱氣,降低隧道內空氣溫度,使列車上空調設備能正常運轉。
3. 緊急模式:當隧道內發生火災或機械電力損壞,列車無法繼續前進,將停止於隧道內;在此緊急運轉情況下,所需之隧道通風系統模式為緊急模式,當列車於隧道內發生火災時之因應策略為(一)若列車未失去動力,則將列車行駛至車站供乘客在月台逃生;(二)若列車失去動力停於隧道內,則需藉由隧道通風系統控制濃煙的漫延及方向,以利乘客逃生。
二、隧道通風系統設備與設施包括:隧道風機(TVF)、噴流式風機(JAF)、衝流式風機(IAF)、月台下排氣及軌道上方排氣風機(UPE/OTE)、軌道排氣風機(TEF)、隧道風門(TD)、消音箱(SAT)及通風井等,透由以上風機之運轉方向及風門之啟閉,達到控制隧道內之氣流方向,及緊急火警時排煙方向,以確保人員逃生安全的目的。
三、系統監控:
隧道通風系統係由捷運系統行控中心進行監控,除正常模式外,塞車模式係經由行控中心中央監控系統(SCADA)之路線控制員確認號誌系統發出路段塞車警示訊號,並由設備監控控制員確認塞車時間是否達啟動風機條件,最後由行控中心值班經理決定下達風機運轉模式指令;緊急模式則需由司機員將列車現況回報行控中心後,再依前述程序由值班經理視狀態下達風機運轉模式指令。

The purpose of the ventilation system to be installed in tunnel sections is to provide a suitable environment for an operating MRT. The ventilation system channels fresh air, decreases tunnel temperature, ventilates exhaust from the operation emission, provides comfortable environment for passengers and can effectively induce diffusion of smoke during an emergency fire to assure passenger evacuation safety.
I. Ventilation modes includes the following:
A.Normal mode: when the train is operating regularly according to the timetable, tunnel ventilation will operate under normal mode. The normal mode utilizes the piston effect caused by the train entering the tunnel and exchanges internal warm air with external fresh air via the vent shaft. The fans are turned off under this mode.
B.Traffic congestion mode: when the train is halted inside the tunnel for over 20 seconds, the ventilation system will operate under traffic congestion mode. When the train is halted in the tunnel instead of passing through, the piston effect wears off, resulting in higher tunnel temperature with constant exhaust emitted from the train. Therefore, mechanical forces are required to induce airflow into the tunnel which will ventilate exhaust and cool down tunnel temperature. The air conditioning system on the train can then operate normally.
C.Emergency mode: when encounte-ring an emergency fire or mechanical malfunction situation resulting in total stop of the train, the ventilation system will operate under emergency mode. The two emergency responses for fire alarm in the tunnel are one, if the train can still operate, the train shall be driven to the station for passengers to evacuate on the platform; and two, if the train loses power and is stopped inside the tunnel, the ventilation system will control smoke diffusion direction for passengers to evacuate safely.
II. The tunnel ventilation facilities include tunnel ventilation fan (TVF), jet air fan (JAF), impulse air fan (IAF), under-platform exhaust & over-track exhaust (UPE & OTE), trackway exhaust fan (TEF), tunnel damper (TD), sound attenuator (SAT), etc. The system controls the direction of airflow and also the direction of smoke diffusion during a fire by controlling the mechanical fans and ventilation doors to assure not only suitable tunnel environment but also evacuation safety.
III.System monitoring: the tunnel ven-tilation system is controlled from the operation control center. Regarding traffic congestion mode, it is first identified by the SCADA controller with confirmation of the congestion signal from the signaling system. Then, the congestion duration is verified by the equipment controller to decide whether initiation conditions are met. Lastly, the duty manager is authorized to command for ventilation mode. As for emergency mode, the first step is for the driver to report back to OCC. Then, after the above verification procedure, the duty manager gives out ventilation instructions.

  • 噴流式風機。
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