Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
道岔懶人包(一) For Dummies: Railway Turnouts (1)

道岔是提供列車變換軌道路徑的設施,主要由尖軌、基本軌及岔心、翼軌組成。當道岔的尖軌及岔心向左靠時,列車將會行駛右側軌道;若道岔的尖軌及岔心向右靠時,列車將會行駛左側軌道。
高鐵的轉轍器主要由馬達、連桿及微動開關組成,轉轍器內的馬達用以帶動連桿,推或拉動尖軌及岔心,可讓列車變換行駛的軌道路徑。
為了避免列車出軌,必須限制列車速度,當道岔越彎,則道岔越短,可允許通過的速度也就越慢;反之,道岔越直,則道岔越長,可允許行駛的速度就越快。
因應高鐵運轉需求:1.直達車台北-左營行車時間90分鐘;2.非直達車台北-左營行車時間120分鐘;3.非直達車需以時速130或160公里變換行駛軌道進站停靠。因此高鐵需要較長的尖軌及岔心,故需要多個轉轍器同時推拉尖軌及岔心,使尖軌及岔心與基本軌有較密合及平順的接觸,以確保列車高速通過時的穩定與安全。

Turnouts are mechanisms used for converting rails during train operation and the mechanism consists of two parts, the switch rail & stock rail and the crossing & wing rail. When the switch rail and crossing lean to the left, the train will operate along the right track; on the contrary, when the switch rail and crossing lean to the right, the train will operate along the left track. The switch in the HSR system consists of a motor, a connection rod and a snap switch. The motor induces the connection rod to push or pull the switch rail & crossing which will lead to change of the operating route. To avoid derailment during route change, the operation speed has to be limited. When the turnout angle is larger, the turnout is shorter and will allow lower speed limit; on the other hand, when the turnout angle is smaller, the turnout is longer and will allow higher speed limit.
Owing to HSR operating demands including first, 90-min operation time from Taipei to Zuoying for express trains; second, 120-min operation time from Taipei to Zuoying for commuter trains; and third, requirement of under 130-160 km/h during rail change for commuter trains, the HSR system requires longer switch rails and crossings comparing to other rail systems. With longer switch rails, multiple switches are needed to simultaneously push/pull the switch rail & crossing and achieve a smooth contact surface. With tight adherence of the switch rail and crossing to the stock rail, stability and safety of HSR rail conversion can be assured.

  • 分享: