Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
高鐵道岔懶人包(3)-微動開關篇 Turnouts for Dummies 3: Snap switch
1. 單排式微動開關模組。2. 4排式微動開關模組。3. 6排式微動開關模組。4. 6排式微動開關模組(側照)。

微動開關是放在轉轍器及靠密偵測器(EPD)內,用來偵測道岔的尖軌、岔心是否已確實與基本軌靠緊閉合。其型式有分單排式微動開關模組(使用於EPD)、4排式微動開關模組(使用於轉轍器)及6排式微動開關模組(使用於轉轍器)等。
微動開關異常的主因是製程上的瑕疵使接觸點可能接觸不良,當任一接觸點異常就無法導通電路傳遞訊號,導致無法確認尖軌是否靠密,轉轍器就會發出道岔故障訊號,而影響列車運轉。此時即須派維修員進入軌道區確認並做處理,以恢復營運,雖造成旅客的不便,但不會影響營運安全。
目前針對微動開關異常的改善作為有:
1.加強生產檢驗-微動開關原廠已改善微動開關製程,並增加產品光學檢驗程序,以提高微動開關之良率。
2.加強進貨檢測-微動開關進貨後,由台灣高鐵公司於微動開關測試台上進行100次以上之測試,合格後才同意收進倉庫。
3.加強出貨檢測-從倉庫出貨時須再經微動開關測試台進行1,000次測試,合格後才送至現場。
4.加強安裝檢測-微動開關安裝於現場的轉轍器(或靠密偵測器)後,整個道岔仍須經過至少10次以上扳轉測試無誤,始得正式啟用。

The snap switch is located inside the HSR switch and EPD is used to detect whether the switch rail and crossing of the turnout is tightly adhered to the stock rail. Snap switch modules include single-row (used in EPD), four-row (used in switches) and six-row modules.
Manufacturing defects are the major cause of snap switch malfunctions that will result in incomplete contact. Incomplete contact at any point will cause short circuit and the signals indicating adhesiveness of the turnout will not be successfully transmitted. Then, the switch will display turnout error leading to malfunction of train operation. When encountering this error, engineers will be dispatched to the site immediately to confirm the error and troubleshoot to restore normal operation as soon as possible. Although the process will cause inconvenience and delay to passengers, operational safety will not be jeopardized.
Currently, measures to improve the troubleshooting process of snap switch errors include:
1. Enhancing manufacturing Inspection measures- the manufacturing company has implemented improvement measures to the original snap switch manufacturing process and added optical inspection procedure to their QC routine.
2. Increasing incoming inspection measures- each incoming snap switch will have to pass over 100 tests on the snap switch testing platform performed by THSRC before taken into the warehouse.
3. Increasing outgoing inspection measures- each snap switch taken out of the warhouse will have to pass over 1000 tests on the snap switch testing platform before being sent to construction site.
4. Enhancing installation tests- after installation of the snap switch in switches or EPD, the turnout has to be tested over 10 times before official operation.

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