Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
臺鐵及機場捷運號誌ATP之比較 Comparison of TRA and TIAA MRT ATP Signaling Systems
臺鐵與機場捷運ATP系統ETCS等級示意圖。

自動列車防護系統(ATP)透過偵測列車之位置、方向及速度,可提供列車移動監控、資訊與監督駕駛、警告駕駛危險情況和緊急時強制煞車;亦可簡化軌旁號誌設備,其相關設備具有失效自趨安全設計(Fail Safe),系統也大多有備援設計,以確保絕對行車安全。
臺鐵ATP系統屬於歐洲列車控制系統(ETCS)Level1,即列車移動權取得或允許移動距離來自道旁號誌系統顯示資料,再將號誌顯示資訊與列車控制訊號一起編碼,透過兩軌間之地上感應子(Balise)傳送允許速度到車載駕駛員顯示器;列車區間位置偵測則由計軸器或軌道電路區間提供,屬於固定閉塞區間號誌系統。
機場捷運採用功能增強型之通訊式列車控制(CBTC-EP),ATP系統屬於ETCS Level2,與Level1相異的是:列車移動權取得或允許移動距離倚靠無線通訊系統方式來傳遞訊號,可有效減少軌旁號誌機數量,其列車定位偵測由軌道間之絕對位置參考(APR)應答器及車上讀取器提供,優點為增加路線容量並可降低行車間隔。
ATP系統可以有效減少因人為過失誤判或機械設備故障所導致之行車事故,搭配災害偵測系統更能避免因天候、地震、土石流等不可抗力之自然災害所造成之行車危害。

By detecting the location, direction and speed of the moving train, the automatic train protection system (ATP) can provide instant monitoring, train data and driver supervision of the train movement. The ATP system will also immediately warn the driver when encountering dangerous situations and implement emergency brakes. Moreover, the system possesses the characteristics of simplifying wayside rail signals, Fail Safe designs and backup designs to ensure operational safety of the train.
The ATP System in TRA falls in the category of Level 1 in the European Train Control System (ETCS) in which the acquirement of train movement authority and permitted moving distance is based on the data provided by the wayside signals. The coding of wayside signal data and train control signal will then transfer the approved speed instructions to the driver's display panel via balises between the rails. In addition, the train location is detected by the axle counter or track circuit section. Thus, the TRA signaling system is categorized as a "Fixed Block Signaling System".
The train control system of TIAA MRT is a more enhanced system, CBTC-EP, and its ATP system falls in the category, Level 2, in ETCS. The difference of this level 2 ATP system comparing to the TRA level 1 system is that the acquirement of train movement authority and permitted moving distance is based on a wireless communication system which reduces the number of wayside signals needed. In addition, the train locating mechanism is provided by the wayside APR balise and on-train receiver which increases line capacity and reduces headway.
The ATP system in TIAA MRT will greatly reduce operational accidents caused by human error and hardware malfunction. Moreover, with the combination of the disaster detection system, there will be far less operational accidents due to weather or inevitable natural disasters such as earthquakes and mudslides.

  • 臺鐵與機場捷運ATP系統ETCS等級示意圖。
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