Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
機場捷運災害安全監測系統簡介 Introduction to the TIAA MRT Disaster Warning System

機場捷運災害安全監測系統(Disaster Warning System, DWS)係以安裝在適當地點之精密監測儀器,測讀相關數據,使其對各項安全監測中變化較大或難以掌握的現象能獲得即時資訊,俾利儘速反應並做出研判及分析,以有效掌握各種行為變化,對有異常之行為或現象提出預警,防範災害於未然。
依天然災害監測類別,機場捷運系統DWS約略分為地震偵測、強風偵測、橋面雨量水位監測、邊坡滑動監測、河川洪水位監測、橋墩基礎沖刷監測、橋梁傾斜位移監測、結構地震/結構應力應變監測等。其運作模式大致如下:各項自動監測及維護措施係於地震、颱風或豪雨來襲時,利用裝設之即時測報安全監測預警系統,藉由其正確可靠的即時與長期監測資料供行車安全及營運管控之參考。其訊號之應用大致區分為DRAMS接收之訊號、號誌系統(Signaling Interlock)接收之訊號、建築物管理系統(BMS)接收之DWS訊號、SCADA接收之訊號傳至OCC。
舉「自由場地震儀」監測系統為例,自由場地震儀採用埋入式加速度計,位置設置在A6、A9、A16、A21車站,其地震偵測訊號傳輸區分為車站操作員監視地震等級Sensor → DRAMS → BMS → PAO、接收來自BMS的警報信號並予以顯示於工作站Sensor → DRAMS → BMS → SCADA → OCC、號誌系統連鎖自動控制行車Sensor → DRAMS → RIP → Signaling Interlock → ATO,當地震儀測得P波時,在S波尚未對機場捷運產生影響前,先發出警報,以利系統及人員及早反應,降低可能之損失。

The TIAA MRT Disaster Warning System (DWS) is a sophisticate monitoring equipment that can measure various data and provide real-time information regarding massive changes or unpredictable phenomenon. Moreover, the system is able to analyze and determine whether a situation is abnormal and provide instant appropriate reaction. By taking control of various situations, disasters may be prevented efficiently.
Basing on different natural disaster monitoring functions, the DWS in TIAA MRT System can be roughly categorized into earthquake, strong wind, rainfall level on bridge, slope slide, river level, bridge foundation scouring, tilt and displacement of bridge, seismic/structural stress and strain, etc. monitoring. The operational modes are elaborated as follows: each automatic monitoring and maintenance system is able to activate instant safety alert while earthquake, typhoon or heavy rain strikes. Accurate and reliable information from real-time monitoring and long-term data could be the reference of traffic safety and operational control. Signal application can be roughly divided into signal reception from DRAMS, signal reception from signaling interlocks, DWS reception signal from building management system (BMS) and SCADA received signal transmitting to OCC.
Take "free-field seismograph" monitoring system as an example, free-field seismograph installed at A6, A9, A16, A21 stations used embedded accelerometers to transfer earthquake detection signals. The transmission signal can be sorted into the following route: station operator monitors seismic level sensor → DRAMS → BMS → PAO; receiving alarm signals from BMS and display signal on the workstation sensor → DRAMS → BMS → SCADA → OCC; semaphore system chaining automatic control traffic sensor → DRAMS → RIP → signaling interlock → ATO. When the free-field monitor detects the P-wave of earthquake, it will issue an alert before the S-wave arrives and causes damage to the TIAA MRT System. This could facilitate early response for related systems and personnel and reduce possible damage and loss.
The countermeasure can be classified into intensity scale 2-3, 4 and 5 or above. When OCC personnel receives the earthquake alert from semaphore station and the intensity scale from central monitoring system, the operator will confirm the correctness of earthquake information from Central Weather Bureau to release appropriate countermeasure according to the degree of earthquake to maintain system security.

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