Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
機場捷運隧道防災(火災)理念 TIAA MRT Tunnel Disaster Prevention (Fire) Concept
表1、圖1 隧道防災相關安全設施配置原則

機場捷運全線整體安全策略之規劃係依據美國防火協會NFPA130規定辦理,有關隧道防災(火災)避難原則為當隧道內列車失火,應儘可能駛往下一站停靠,並依車站火災救援處理,尚未進入地下段則避免駛入;若因特殊原因須停於隧道內,則依人員救援程序包括利用救援列車疏散及下軌道疏散等兩種方式進行疏散:
救援列車疏散:旅客安全未受立即威脅時(如設備故障或障礙物等),若軌道仍有電源供應,第一優先係利用另一部列車將事故車拖出事故地點或以空車將旅客接回車站。
下軌道疏散:旅客必須下軌疏散時,應先辦理列車防護切斷導電軌電源,續引導旅客由最近逃生出口或車站疏散,並配合旅客疏散方向啟動隧道通風系統進行排煙。
配合旅客必要時下軌道疏散安全需求,隧道防災相關安全設施配置原則如表1所示。機場捷運最重要的隧道防災區段為桃園機場段,故依配置原則,隧道聯絡通道配置以A11~A14車站聯絡通道配置為例,如圖1所示。另隧道內設置安全走道(圖2)、緊急照明(圖3)、避難方向指示燈及緊急出口指示燈、第三軌斷電設施(隧道緊急斷電使用,如圖4)、緊急逃生出口(引導旅客經由樓梯爬至地面進行疏散,以華航維修廠緊急逃生出口布設為例,如圖5)、設置隧道通風系統及煙控系統(送風方向與旅客逃生方向相反,確保旅客前方有新鮮空氣 ,如圖6)、聯絡通道(以2小時防火時效安全門與隧道隔開,以安全避難區提供正壓送風阻止煙塵進入,如圖7),並配合整體防災機制以確保旅客安全。

The overall planning of the TIAA MRT safety strategy is based on Regulation NFPA130 of the United States National Fire Protection Association. The asylum principle of tunnel fire prevention is that when the train inside the tunnel caught fire, it should go as far as possible to the next stop and immediately implement station fire rescue measures. The train that has not entered underground sections should also avoid entering underground sections. If the train must stop in the tunnel due to special reasons, there are two evacuation ways according to personnel rescue procedures including rescue train evacuation and detrainment on to the track:
1.Rescue train evacuation: when the safety of the passengers is not immediately threatened (such as equipment failure or obstructions), the first priority is to use another train to pull the accident vehicle out of the accident site or to take the passengers back to the station in another empty train if there is still power supply in the rail.
2.Detrainment on to the track: when passengers must evacuate on the rail, the power of the conduct rails should first be cut off. Then, relevant staff should guide passengers to the nearest escape exit or station to evacuate. The tunnel ventilation system should also be turned on in line with the direction of passenger evacuation to start exhaust smoke.
In coordination with passenger needs, the configuration principles of security requirements of detrainment on to the track related facilities are shown in Figure 1. The most significant tunnel disaster prevention section of the TIAA MRT System is the Taoyuan Airport section. Therefore, according to configuration principles, using the configuration between A11 to A14 stations as an example, the communication channel configuration is also shown in Figure 1. In addition, other facilities include a security walkway (Figure 2), emergency lighting (Figure 3), evacuation direction indicator, emergency exit indicator, power-off facilities of the third rail (for use during emergency power off, Figure 4), emergency escape exit (to guide passengers to climb through the stairs to evacuate to the ground; take the emergency exit of China Airlines maintenance plant as an example, Figure 5), the tunnel ventilation system and smoke control system (the ventilation air direction is the opposite direction from the passenger escape route to ensure that passengers has fresh air in front of them, Figure 6), a communication channel (separated from the tunnel by 2-hour fire resistance safety door; a safe refuge to provide positive air supply, Figure 7) to coordinate with the overall disaster prevention mechanism to ensure passenger safety.

  • 圖2:設置隧道安全走道。
  • 圖3:隧道內設有緊急照明及插座。
  • 圖4:第三軌斷電設施(設置於月台前後及隧道每100公尺1處)。
  • 圖5:設置緊急逃生出口。
  • 圖6:設置軌道通風系統、煙控系統、安全避難區提供正壓送風。
  • 圖7:隧道聯絡通道及安全門。
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