Newsletter 高速鐵路簡訊 . 交通部高速鐵路工程局
他山之石-日本場站無障礙設施簡介 Stones from Other Hills May Serve to Polish the Jade of This One – Introduction to the Barrier-free Facilities in Transportation Stations in Japan
羽田機場多功能廁所設備。

人口老化改變了社會人口結構,對無障礙空間的需求也相對提升,適合人類全生命週期的「通用設計」成為時代趨勢,如何因應高齡的社會問題與提出相應的解決辦法,成為政府當前的重要課題。根據聯合國世界衛生組織WHO定義,65歲以上人口占總人口比例達7%時,為「高齡化社會(aging society)」;比例達14%時,為「高齡社會(aged society)」;比例達20%時則邁入「超高齡社會(super-aged society)」。
台灣人口老化速度和日本並列全球第三名,僅次於南韓與新加坡。台灣在民國82年已是「高齡化社會」,國發會也推估明年將會跨入「高齡社會」,並預估到民國115年,老年人口將突破20%門檻,成為「超高齡社會」。
我國無障礙相關硬體設施,係以內政部頒行之「建築物無障礙設施設計規範」為標準,交通部亦訂有「大眾運輸工具無障礙設施設置辦法」,高速鐵路及機場捷運車站及列車無障礙設施均以通車當時法規設置,並陸續配合法規修訂更新設備。
為了解國外場站因應高齡化所提供之設施狀況,本局由陳副總工程司率隊,於106年12月至日本東京都考察,除拜訪日本國土交通省鐵道局,瞭解其鐵道設施有關高齡及身心障礙者之相關法令規定、實際作法及鐵路機構辦理設施改善之經費補助辦法外,並實地參訪羽田機場國際航廈、地鐵車站,觀摩日本運輸場站相關設施。因本局正辦理機場捷運第三航廈站(A14)之細部設計,本次考察結果亦可提供A14站細部設計精進作為之參考。
日本國土交通省依據「高齡者與身障者移動無障礙促進法」規定,訂定旅客設施及車輛等的構造及設備推動無障礙化之相關基準,對於推動鐵道無障礙化,國土交通省鐵道局則提供高齡者與身障者友善環境的無障礙基本方針。
東京羽田機場於辦理國際線航站區擴建時,考量世界各地旅客往來需求,引入通用設計想法,於2006年率先全國成立專家學者委員會,以優於國家法令的觀念進行設計,並實際建置多功能廁所模組樣本,由委員與廠商檢討實用性並調整設備尺寸及配置等細節,再正式興建航站設施,引進設置構想包含:
「無障礙多功能廁所」因應左右側肢障左右開門方向各設置一間、廁間內各項設施深度統一(方便輪椅順利迴旋)、緊急按鈕連接防災中心、廁間內設置閃燈裝置(外部緊急狀況告知)、照護床、更衣板;「電梯」電梯門與各樓層開口門尺寸一致、外牆玻璃加設線條提醒弱視者、樓層上下方向輔以不同音樂;「標誌」用色對比自明性、字體、日英中韓文並列;「哺集乳室」熱水恆溫攝氏70度;航站與地鐵系統共同設置「服務中心」提供輪椅及嬰兒車租借;「導盲磚」導引視障者至服務中心櫃檯並有專人於檯前服務。
地鐵系統部分,因日本地鐵歷史悠久,各型電聯車地板高度不同,無法如我國高鐵與捷運系統一般,達到輪椅自由進出無障礙通行環境,日本政府乃以2020年京奧運為目標,由政府補助多數經費進行改善工程(2017年補助經費達214億日圓),希望日運量3千人次以上車站(3,559座),消除踏階障礙,讓輪椅者便利的從地面移動至月台層(利用電梯及坡道解決高低差、通道寬度改善符合輪椅寬度),再由站務人員協助上車;列車設置輪椅放置位置(每列車一處);日運量10萬人次以上車站(266座)設置月台門。另視障者在東京地鐵系統內則能藉由導盲磚、點字設備便利的進出,所以導盲系統在日本仍為無障礙之大宗設施。
綜觀日本除由政府制定法令外,各設備製造廠商對通用設備亦積極研發,以符合人體工學角度開發新產品,各公共場所和地鐵車站內常見友善貼心設計巧思,值得我國借鏡。

Population aging has changed the structure of the social population and the need for accessible space has also increased. The “universal design” that is suitable for the entire human life cycle has become the trend of the times. In consequence, how to respond to the social problems of the elderly and put forward corresponding solutions has become the government's current major issue. According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition, when the population over the age of 65 accounts for 7% of the total population, it is then an “aging society”; when the ratio reaches 14%, it is an “aged society”; when the ratio reaches 20%, it turns into a “super-aged society”.
Taiwan's population is aging at a rate equal to Japan's, tied third place in the world and only slower than South Korea and Singapore. Taiwan has become an “aging society” since 1993. Moreover, the National Development Council also estimates that we will step into the “aged society” next year, and by the year 2026, the elderly population will exceed the 20% threshold and become a “super-aged society”.
The barrier-free hardware and facilities in our country are based on the “Regulations for Design of Barrier-free Facilities in Buildings” issued by the Ministry of the Interior. In addition, the MOTC also has the “Measures for the Establishment of Barrier-free Facilities for Mass Transit Vehicles”. The barrier-free facilities for HSR and TIAA MRT EMUs and stations complied with the regulations available at the time of the opening of the systems. Relevant facilities will be updated to comply with the revised laws and regulations.
To understand the situation of facilities applied in transportation stations in response to the aging population in other countries, Deputy Chief Engineer Chen led a BOHSR team to Tokyo in Dec. 2017 for inspection purposes. In addition to visiting the Railway Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism to understand the relevant regulations and practical measures of the elderly and disabled persons in their railway facilities, the inspection team took the time to know the railway agency’s budgeting and subsidy details for the improvement of the railway facilities. The team also took an onsite visit to Haneda International Airport Terminal, the metro stations and observed the related facilities of Japanese transport stations. As BOHSR is currently implementing the detailed designs of TIAA MRT Airport Terminal 3 Station (A14), the results of this overseas inspection can also provide reference for the detailed design of the A14 station.
Japan’s Railway Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism determines standards for the accessibility of passenger facilities and structures of vehicles according to the “Elderly and Disabled Barrier-free Access Act”. In order to promote the accessibility of the Railway Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism provided a basic barrier-free policy without having to compromise between the elderly and the disabled passengers.
During the expansion of the international terminal area of Tokyo Haneda Airport, they took into account the needs of travelers around the world and introduced the idea of “universal design” into the construction. They took the lead in setting up a national committee of experts and scholars in 2006 to design the terminal better than national regulations. Actual multi-functional toilet module samples were made and review by committee members and vendors for its practicality and then adjustment of the size and configuration were made before formally being built as terminal facilities. The introduced ideas included:
The “barrier-free multi-purpose restroom”: provided with one left and right door opening for the use of people with left or right extremities, the facilities in the restroom are of uniform depth (wheelchair can be smoothly rotated), the emergency button is connected to the disaster prevention center, the flashing device (external emergency notification) in the restroom, care bed and changing board. The “elevator”: the size of elevator doors and the floor doors are the same, external wall glass is marked with lines to remind passengers with amblyopia, different music is applied for up or down directions. The “sign”: apparent comparison colors, fonts and has four languages-Japanese, English, Korean and Chinese. The “Breastfeeding room”: hot water temperature is constantly at 70 degrees Celsius. The terminal and the subway system both set up a “service center” to provide wheelchairs and baby car rental. “Tactile paving” guides visually impaired persons to the counter of the service center and will be guided with a specialized staff.
Due to the long history of the Japanese subway and the different floor heights of various types of EMUs, the subway system cannot reach the barrier-free entrance and exit environment as the HSR and MRT system in our country. As a result, the Japanese government, aiming at the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, will make improvements from the majority of government grants (subsidy of 21.4 billion yen in 2017). The stations with daily traffic volume of more than 3,000 people (3,559 stations) will eliminate stair barriers for the passengers with wheelchair to reach the platform conveniently (utilizing elevators and ramp to solve the height difference and change the channel width to fit the wheelchair width), and then the station staff will help the passenger to get on the train. Establish a specialized wheelchair area onboard (at each cab). For the stations with daily traffic volume of more than 100,000 people (266 stations), platform doors will be established. On the other hand, the visually impaired are able to easily access the Tokyo subway system via tactile paving and Braille devices so the blind guiding system is still the majority of barrier-free facilities in Japan.
In general, in addition to the government that enacts the laws and decrees, equipment manufacturers in Japan are also actively developing generic equipment to develop new products in an ergonomic way. Thoughtful and ingenious designs are common in all public places and subway stations, which is worth for our country to learn from.

  • 羽田機場多國語言標誌。
  • 地鐵站內友善貼心座椅-高扶手及枴杖放置槽。
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